Glossary For Access Control

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Passive Infrared Detector (PIR) A motion sensing device, often used for intrusion detection systems, can also be used to unlock a door as someone wishing to egress approaches.

Potentiometer (pot) : Variable resistor, manually adjustable.

Primary : The transformer winding that received energy from a supply circuit.

Printed circuit board : A means of making electrical interconnections without using insulated wires. Printed circuit boards provide a supporting and insulating medium for component and conductors in a form that is readily adaptable to mat assembly.

Proximity : A common access card technology, proximity uses radio frequency to communicate between a card or tag and a reader without physical contact.

Packet : A piece of a message transmitted over a packet-switching network. One of the key features of a packet is that it contains the destination address in addition to the data. In IP networks, packets are often called datagrams.

Packet Switched Network : A packet switched network is where individual packets each follow their own paths through the network from one endpoint to another.

Partitions : Major divisions of the total physical hard disk space.

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) : Password Authentication Protocol is a simple, weak authentication mechanism where a user enters the password and it is then sent across the network, usually in the clear.

Password Cracking : Password cracking is the process of attempting to guess passwords, given the password file information.

Password Sniffing : Passive wiretapping, usually on a local area network, to gain knowledge of passwords.

Patch : A patch is a small update released by a software manufacturer to fix bugs in existing programs.

Patching : Patching is the process of updating software to a different version.

Payload : Payload is the actual application data a packet contains.

Penetration : Gaining unauthorized logical access to sensitive data by circumventing a system's protections.

Penetration Testing : Penetration testing is used to test the external perimeter security of a network or facility.

Permutation : Permutation keeps the same letters but changes the position within a text to scramble the message.

Personal Firewalls : Personal firewalls are those firewalls that are installed and run on individual PCs.

pharming : This is a more sophisticated form of MITM attack. A user’s session is redirected to a masquerading website. This can be achieved by corrupting a DNS server on the Internet and pointing a URL to the masquerading website’s IP.Changing the pointers on a DNS server, the URL can be redirected to send traffic to the IP of the pseudo website. At the pseudo website, transactions can be mimicked and information like login credentials can be gathered. With this the attacker can access the real site and conduct transactions using the credentials of a valid user on that website.

Phishing : The use of e-mails that appear to originate from a trusted source to trick a user into entering valid credentials at a fake website. Typically the e-mail and the web site looks like they are part of a bank the user is doing business with.

Ping of Death : An attack that sends an improperly large ICMP echo request packet (a "ping") with the intent of overflowing the input buffers of the destination machine and causing it to crash.

Ping Scan : A ping scan looks for machines that are responding to ICMP Echo Requests.

Ping Sweep : An attack that sends ICMP echo requests ("pings") to a range of IP addresses, with the goal of finding hosts that can be probed for vulnerabilities.

Plaintext : Ordinary readable text before being encrypted into ciphertext or after being decrypted.

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) : A protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. It packages your computer's TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) : A protocol (set of communication rules) that allows corporations to extend their own corporate network through private "tunnels" over the public Internet.

Poison Reverse : Split horizon with poisoned reverse (more simply, poison reverse) does include such routes in updates, but sets their metrics to infinity. In effect, advertising the fact that there routes are not reachable.

Polyinstantiation : Polyinstantiation is the ability of a database to maintain multiple records with the same key. It is used to prevent inference attacks.

Polymorphism : Polymorphism is the process by which malicious software changes its underlying code to avoid detection.

Port : A port is nothing more than an integer that uniquely identifies an endpoint of a communication stream. Only one process per machine can listen on the same port number.

Port Scan : A port scan is a series of messages sent by someone attempting to break into a computer to learn which computer network services, each associated with a "well-known" port number, the computer provides. Port scanning, a favorite approach of computer cracker, gives the assailant an idea where to probe for weaknesses. Essentially, a port scan consists of sending a message to each port, one at a time. The kind of response received indicates whether the port is used and can therefore be probed for weakness.

Possession : Possession is the holding, control, and ability to use information.

Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (POP3) : An Internet Standard protocol by which a client workstation can dynamically access a mailbox on a server host to retrieve mail messages that the server has received and is holding for the client.

Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) : A script programming language that is similar in syntax to the C language and that includes a number of popular Unix facilities such as sed, awk, and tr.

Preamble : A preamble is a signal used in network communications to synchronize the transmission timing between two or more systems. Proper timing ensures that all systems are interpreting the start of the information transfer correctly. A preamble defines a specific series of transmission pulses that is understood by communicating systems to mean "someone is about to transmit data". This ensures that systems receiving the information correctly interpret when the data transmission starts. The actual pulses used as a preamble vary depending on the network communication technology in use.

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)TM : Trademark of Network Associates, Inc., referring to a computer program (and related protocols) that uses cryptography to provide data security for electronic mail and other applications on the Internet.

Private Addressing : IANA has set aside three address ranges for use by private or non-Internet connected networks. This is referred to as Private Address Space and is defined in RFC 1918. The reserved address blocks are: to (10/8 prefix) to (172.16/12 prefix) to (192.168/16 prefix)

Program Infector : A program infector is a piece of malware that attaches itself to existing program files.

Creating Simplicity out of Complexity