Glossary For Access Control

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Egress Passage through an opening in the exit direction, especially passage that leads out of a structure.

Electric Strike A door unlocking device that is installed in the door jamb and that works in conjunction with a mechanical lock or latch mechanism.

Electrified Lock A mechanical locking device that has been modified to allow an electric circuit to lock or unlock it.

Electromagnetic Lock (Magnetic Lock, Mag Lock) A device that locks/unlocks an opening without moving parts, using pure electro-magnetic attraction.

Energize To apply power.

Exit Switch/Sensor/Bar
A type of switch that is designed to facilitate egress through an opening. Usually used with electromagnetic locks, these come in a variety of types.

Eavesdropping : Eavesdropping is simply listening to a private conversation which may reveal information which can provide access to a facility or network.

Echo Reply : An echo reply is the response a machine that has received an echo request sends over ICMP.

Echo Request : An echo request is an ICMP message sent to a machine to determine if it is online and how long traffic takes to get to it.

Egress Filtering : Filtering outbound traffic.

Emanations Analysis :
Gaining direct knowledge of communicated data by monitoring and resolving a signal that is emitted by a system and that contains the data but is not intended to communicate the data.

Encapsulation :
The inclusion of one data structure within another structure so that the first data structure is hidden for the time being.

Encryption : Cryptographic transformation of data (called "plaintext") into a form (called "cipher text") that conceals the data's original meaning to prevent it from being known or used.

Ephemeral Port : Also called a transient port or a temporary port. Usually is on the client side. It is set up when a client application wants to connect to a server and is destroyed when the client application terminates. It has a number chosen at random that is greater than 1023.

Escrow Passwords Escrow Passwords are passwords that are written down and stored in a secure location (like a safe) that are used by emergency personnel when privileged personnel are unavailable.

Ethernet :
The most widely-installed LAN technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, an Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. Devices are connected to the cable and compete for access using a CSMA/CD protocol.

Event :
An event is an observable occurrence in a system or network.

Exponential Backoff Algorithm : An exponential backoff algorithm is used to adjust TCP timeout values on the fly so that network devices don't continue to timeout sending data over saturated links.

Exposure :
A threat action whereby sensitive data is directly released to an unauthorized entity.

Extended ACLs (Cisco) :
Extended ACLs are a more powerful form of Standard ACLs on Cisco routers. They can make filtering decisions based on IP addresses (source or destination), Ports (source or destination), protocols, and whether a session is established.

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) :
A framework that supports multiple, optional authentication mechanisms for PPP, including clear-text passwords, challenge-response, and arbitrary dialog sequences.

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) :
A protocol which distributes routing information to the routers which connect autonomous systems.

Creating Simplicity out of Complexity